Explanation of terminology used in Joinery and Carpentry H-K (Part 4)

Continuing on from our previous parts of our Carpentry and Joinery terms, this post sees us looking at H-J.

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H

    Half Blind Dovetail
    An alternative name for a Lapped Dovetail Joint.

    Halving
    The name given to cross-joints, in which half of the timber in each piece is cut away.

    Handrail
    The guide for the hand in a staircase.

    Handrail Bolt (Right)
    A bolt for joining two pieces of handrail in length.

    Hangers
    Metal shoes or straps to carry joists, binders or other cross timbers.

    Hanging Sash
    A balanced sash which slides vertically.

    Hanging Stile
    The Stile of a door which carries the hinges.

    Hardwood
    The timber from broad-leaved trees. Generally, hardwood trees have a less cylindrical trunk than Coniferous (Softwood) trees and a wide rounded crown that contains heavy branches (think of Oak, Beech and Ash trees). The seeds from a hardwood tree have a covering (e.g. acorns and stoned fruits) and they are also mainly deciduous (they shed their leaves in winter). Hardwood differs from Softwood in its cell structure, which contains three types of cell – fibres, parenchyma and vessels or pores. Softwood, by comparison, contains only two types of cell. The Fibres are the main structural tissue of the wood, giving its mechanical strength. The Parenchyma perform the same function as in softwood – they store the food. The Vessels are the sap-conducting cells. The name Hardwood is no indication as to how hard the timber actually is; think of Balsa, which is considered a hardwood but is less dense and a lot softer than many softwoods.

    Haunch (Right)
    A small projection left by reducing the width of a Tenon. Usually found when the joint is on the end of a piece of framework and mainly used in door construction.

    Haunching
    A recess made to receive the haunch of a tenon.

    Haunched tenon

    Head
    The top member of a frame. Also a machine cutter block.

    Headers
    Noggins in stud partitions to carry the edges of boarding.

    Heading Joint
    A joint in length between two pieces of timber, such as Skirting Boards, which have been jointed on long runs.

    Heartshake
    Shakes radiating from the Pith in the heartwood.

    Heartwood
    The inner part of a tree trunk, as distinguished from the Sapwood which consists of the later Growth Rings.

    Herring-bone
    Timbers placed obliquely in opposite directions.

    Herring-bone Strutting (Right)
    Diagonal cross bracing found in-between floor joists, the strutting stiffens the joists up and helps to spread the weight of any load placed upon the floor.

    Herring-bone strutting used in-between floor joists

    Hingebound
    A door that binds on the stop, or in the rebate, due to the hinges being fitted incorrectly.

    H-Hinge (Right)
    Another name for a Parliament Hinge, usually these are used when it is required to open a door flat to a wall on which there are mouldings projecting out.

    Hip
    The angle formed by the intersection of two inclined roof surfaces.

    Hipped Roof
    A roof inclined at the end as well as the sides.

    Hip Rafter
    The rafter forming the Hip of a roof.

    Hood Mould
    A projecting moulding over a window.

    Hook and Eye Hinge
    A gate strap hinge. Also known as Band and Gudgeon Hinges or Strap Hinges.

    Hopper
    A draught preventer placed at the side of a sash hinged at the bottom.

    Hopper Window (Right)
    A window consisting of a number of narrow sashes hinged at the bottom and having Hoppers at the sides, though the term is now common for any window with opening sashes hinged at the bottom. An older name for this type of window is a Hospital Window but this term is not widely used.

    Horn
    A projection on a piece of framing left in position until the framing is fitted, commonly found on made-to-measure doors.

    Example of a hopper from a hopper window

    Housing
    A sinking in of one member of a frame to allow for the insertion of the end of another member.

    HSE Fee For Intervention
    Not solely a Woodworking topic as it covers all industries, but worth a mention. The HSE Fee For Intervention was introduced in October 2012 and in a nutshell means that if an Employer is found guilty of a material breach of HSE law by a HSE inspector then they (the Employer) will be liable for all costs for the time spent by the HSE correcting the breach. Previously the cost was recouped from the public purse.You can read a bit more on the HSE Fee for Intervention here.

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I

    Inbark
    Bark enclosed within the tree and only exposed during the conversion stage.

    Indents
    The sinkings in one piece of a Scarfed Joint to receive the projections on the other piece.

    In-stick
    Alternative name for the air drying of timber. For Softwood, the timber to be dried is stacked in open sided, covered sheds which allow air circulation, whilst protecting the timber from rain. The boards should be laid horizontally, the largest at the bottom, the smallest at the top, one piece above the other. This helps reduce the risk of the timber distorting as it dries out. Piling Sticks or Stickers are placed between each layer to support the boards and to allow air to circulate. The ends of the timber should ideally be painted to prevent the timber from drying out too quickly, which can result in the ends splitting.
    For Hardwoods, the timber can be seasoned in the same manner, but stacked in the same order as they were cut from the log

    Intertie
    A horizontal member in structural framing, between the head and the sill.

    Intrados
    The underside, or soffit, of an arch.

    Invert
    A reversed arch.

    Irons
    The cutters of planes or machines.

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J

    Jack Plane (Below)
    A large plane for removing large quantities of material, as in straightening surfaces or reducing the thickness.

    Jack plane for removing large quantities of material

    Jack Rafter
    The short rafters between the Hip and Wall Plate and in the same plane as the Common Rafters.

    Jambs
    The vertical sides of wall openings. Also, the vertical posts of frames fixed within an opening.

    Jib Door
    An interior door flush with the wall so as to be inconspicuous.

    Joggle (Below)
    A small projection left on a member of a piece of framing to strengthen the joint where two members meet at an angle. Below, left, is an example of a joggle on a gate, on the right an example of a joggle on a sliding sash window.

    Joggles on a wooden gate Example of a joggle on a sliding sash window.

    Joiner
    The old saying was ‘A Carpenter uses nails, whilst a Joiner uses screws’. Bench Joiners are to be found in workshops marking out, preparing and manufacturing doors, windows, gates etc. Site Joiners are involved with the finishing and fitting aspect such as hanging doors, fitting skirting boards and architraves etc.

    Joinery
    The art of framing, joining, dressing and fixing the finishings of a building.

    Joint
    The connection between two pieces of timber.

    Joint Connectors
    Used to strengthen joints of heavy constructional timbers. The image (below right) shows a joint connector in a ring format for use in a bolted joint, placed around the bolt, as you would a washer, and between the two timbers to be jointed, when the bolt is tightened, the sharpened serrated edges of the connector bed themselves into the two timbers and make an effective joint to resist lateral movement due to tension. The Gang Nail Plate (below left) is the common form of joint on roof trusses, the plate which has sharpened protruding pins is driven into the truss by machine.

    Joint connector for roof trusses.Joint connector for bolted joints

    Joists
    A small beam. Timbers carrying floors and ceilings.

    Judas Gate
    A gate or door within another bigger gate or door. More commonly called a Whicket Gate.

    Jury
    Anything that is Temporary.

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K

    Keeper
    A staple or striking plate. It can be anything that controls a moving or sliding object as the bolt of a lock.

    Kerf
    A saw cut.

    Key
    A piece of timber, usually Hardwood in a joint to prevent movement. Also, the wedge used to tighten a Tusk Tenon Joint and a dovetailed batten to prevent wide boards from warping.

    Kicker
    A horizontal rail across the carcass for drawers, to prevent a drawer from dropping at the front when open.

    Kiln Drying
    A method of speeding up the drying out process of timber by using either a kiln drier or dehumidifier. The kilns can be Progressive / Continuous Kilns or Compartment Kilns. In a Compartment Kiln, the timber is stationary throughout the drying process, as the air conditions are adjusted as the drying progresses. In a Progressive (or Continuous) Kiln, the timber to be dried enters the kiln at one end on trolleys that move through the kiln; as the trolleys pass through, the air conditions become more severe.

    King Post Truss (Right)
    The simplest form of truss as it contains the fewest members. Used in roof construction during Medieval times, the King Post Truss can be found in many Parish Churches and Tithe barns.

    King Post
    The central member, from the apex to the middle of the tie beam in a King Post roof truss.

    King post truss example

    Knee
    Curved braces with a upward bend. Also a vertical curve in a handrail.

    Knot
    A section through a branch where it penetrates the trunk. In timber knots, this can be either ‘live’ or ‘dead’.

    Knuckle
    The part of the hinge containing the pin or pivot.

    Kyanise
    To impregnate timber with corrosive sublimate (Mercuric Chloride), such as a preservative. This is not commonly used these days, due to its highly toxic nature.

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Part five will be within a week or two; if you think you’ve got a Carpentry or Joinery term that we’ve missed, then please post below in the comments section and we will add it.

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